Religious Music, Jikir and Dance
The pursuance of Maizbhandaries, Music and concert free from guilt are the fooding of love, these dissolve the heart , bring the feeling of love, yields passion and make people enthusiastic .But this song should be God-centered, austerity related and helpful to meditation.
Maoulana Rumi said: ” Holy love (Allah) and Mohammad were Chained in the same thread “. He said, ” Ba Mohammad Bud Eskepok Jupta Bahre Esk Ura Laolak Guft.,
Meaning :- The holy love (Allah) was unified with Mohammad , it is love for which Allah said, if I wouldn’t create you, I wouldn’t create world cosmos (Laoak Lema Khallatul Aflak – Hadith-e-Kudshi) .Maolana pointed out in the fourth part of his Masnabi:-
” Pos Geza-e-Ashekan-e-Amad Sama
kedru Bahsod Kheal-e-Ijtema.”
Meaning:- Therefore, the foodings of lovers are songs, concerts. Because there is Ijtema or the loveful combination of several (people remain in him. Love and music are inter related. Moulana was the sufi poet of thirteenth century (1207-1237). In ancient time , music was regarded as a part of religious functions in the Churches of the Christians and in the Shina Gugue of Jews. In india too, music was used in religious functions. Music and dance were regards as arts for dedicating to Gods. To quote, The Jabur of Hazarat Daud (A.) (1060-970) was a collection of 150 songs. The Elahan (Voice) of Hazarat Daud(A) was melodious . Hills, Vales , birds and beasts used to be fascinated with his song. In English, the Jabur is called Psalms of David and ” Geet Shanghita” in Bengali.
Allah Pak said about Hazarat Daud (A.),” And remember the matter of my powerful Daud. He would always depend on me, I made the hills subdue to him. They used to sing my sanctity with rain in the morning and evening .And I made the birds subdue to him who would be united with him. All of them follow him up. (Sura Suwad, Verses 17-19).
Therefore, it is evident that before three thousand years from now , a Prohet of Allah used to take the shelter of music in the praise of Allah .Nowhere it is quoted that Hazrat Daud (A.) committed sin at this .Maoulana said that a singer is to be regarded as the Imam of congregation or prayer. The listeners will have to follow him in mind. When he sings slowly, a kind of influence falls upon the minds of the listeners. Again when the sings strongly in intense emotion with gorgeous passion. Seikh Saadi , A Fakir (dervish or saint ) weeps at even the sound of a cock. He regards the cry of the cock as the chanting songs of Allah. Imam Gajjali (1057-1111) before two hundred years of Maolana , wrote about religious music in a big chapter of Yiahia Ulumuddin a scripture written in Arabic. The complete original copy of Yiahia Ulumuddin and its translation written in English (Four parts) is in by hand .Though he opined music and concert as legal based on some conditions, that which encourages the sexual tendency is completely illegal (Haram). He said that who cannot understand the intrinsic significance of the music and concert of Sufia Keram, can be compared to the impotent person. As the impotent person cannot realize the taste of intercourse, so the persons cannot comprehend the taste of Sena (religious music). Seikh Saadi said , ” Those who hate Sema, may be compared to the donkey. In his Bostan he said:-
Jaha Poor Sham Ast Wu Mosti Wusur,
Wulekun Cherbinod Dar Aina Kur.
Meaning:- The whole world is full of religious music impassioned in the love of Allah and harmony. But will a blind man see in the mirror?
It may be quoted that Khawja Mainuddin Chisti (1142-1236) and Gaus-e-Pak Hazrat Abdul Qader Jilani (1077-1166) were almost contemporaries. He loved music and concert. Those who went to offer fateha at the shrine of khawaja Baba, saw, that the devotees express their devotion by dint of various Kawali and Gazal . The famous greatman of India Ameer Khashru (1253-1325) is called the emperor of music and concert. He invented various instruments for music. He was the introducer of more ragas and harmony. Hazrat Nizamuddin Awlia too (1236-1325) used to like music and concert. Hazrat Ameer Khasru was devout of him. Maolana Rumi was so impassioned to music that if you come to offer fateha at my grave, don’t come without strumpet. His gajle written Dewan-e-Sams Tabrej follows:
1) Je Khake Mon Agor Gundum Rob Ayed,
2) Aaja Gor Na Foji Mosti Fojayed,
3) Khomir Wu Nanabadiwuna Gordod,
4) Junrosh Boyete Mastana Sorayed,
5) Agor Bor Goore Mon Ayee Jearot.
6) Joora Khor Posta Am Roksa Nomayed,
7) Moya Bed of Bogooremon Breador.
8) Kedot Bojme Khoda Gomgeen Noshayed.
1) It wheat grows up on my grave’s soil.
2) (And) if you make bread of it , indulgence upon it will dwell.
3) The bread maker will be crazy.
4) Hypnotizing verses be shouted in busy.
5) If you come to offer fateha in my grave.
6) I request in bow to dance bring brave.
7) Don’t come to my grave without strumpet.
8) For, displeasures don’t show well in God’s dinner set.
Maolana further said in his Dewan-e- Sams Tobrej, ” Attain holiness, be the dust on way to the lovers on matter of music and concert, you will be accompanied by dog on the last day of Judgment . ” One absorbed in ” The Fatuhat-e-Mokkiah” of Ibnu Arabi. At this time , his devotee Abu Bakar began to beat on the ” Rabab”. Then Maolana spoke out, ” Is the Rabab of Abu Bakar not superior to “The Fatuhat-e-Mkkiah ? ” To quote, about supernatural or Godly love, the philosophical theory of Ibnul Arabia is very complex and mostly theoretical and idealistic.
Sams Tobreji, the peer of Moulana used to say that the ideas of Ibnul Arabi are very self-centered . Love burns away all arguments and bookish knowledge. To quote, Fakhruddin Iraqui (Death -1289 B.C), a singer , passed long twenty -five years in Multan of Pakistan. That time Multan was famous for music.
Fakhruddin Iraqi was the disciple of Bahauddin Jakria. Bahauddin Jakria was introducer of Shuhrawardin Tariqa in this sub-continent. Fakhruddin Arabi (1267 B.C) came across Maolana in Kuniya .His voice was very melodious. He wrote also some gajles in Persian language.For many years, he ornamented the Sema Mahfil of Maolana. A musician trained up in this sub-continent who was in the Mahfil of Maolana is an object of our pride, ( See :- ” I am wind , you are fire by Anne Marie Schimel, ” Boston 1992. [Page-29-30].
Maolana Jalaluddin Rumi is the introducer of a Tariqa. The name of his Tariqa is Maolabia Tariqa . In Turkey, it is known as Mevlevi Tariqa . Music with concert and dance are the two of a few specialties of this Tariqa. The follower of Moulabia Tariqa are known as dancing dervishes or rotating dervishes in Europe .At the time of dance, they remain rotating like a top. In this circumstance, they have two motions. One is circular motion and the other is forward motion.
We notice, children when throw down the top encircled for rotating. It began to rotate with vehement motion and proceeds in one direction, Similarly, stars and planet are moving around the sun. The people of Maolabia Tariqa at the time of dancing follow the two dimensional motion of star and planet. They being included in group stand in half circle and perform ablution and chant Azan ( Call for Prayer) before it. During dancing, they utter the sound of Jikir, Namely,’ Elahi ,Elahi,’ or ‘ Yia Mustafa ‘ and ‘ Illallah ,’ ‘ Hai, Hai, ‘ ‘ Laa Ilaha Illallah’,etc .That time, they take the help of music with concert and dance with the rhythm of concert. This is Jikir-e-Joli. The songs are helpful to dance. When they start dancing on the floor of house or from one end of field, they call that ” Kaus-e-Nuzul ” or the time of descending bow. When they reach moving on the last end of floor or field, they call it ” Kaus-e-Uruj ” or the row of ascending bow. this idea has been taken from verse No: Nine of Surah Nojm of the Holy Quran. In this verses , the Miraj of AA’ Hazrat has been detailed. When he reached higher horizon , he was nearer to Allah . The Distance between them ” Fakana Kaba Kausaini Awo Adhna” ,
Meaning : As a result , the distance between them is of two bows or less than that. Sufia Keram think that if two bows are connected face to face, a complete circle is created. It means, at the time of Miraz, the distance between Allah and Aa’s Hazrat is less than a complete circle. The Sufia Keram think that if two bows are connected face to face, a complete circle is possible. This means, at the time of Miraj, the complete union look place between Allah and Aa’s Hazrat .